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3 is the second prime number, and the second single digit prime number. 3's prime factors are 1 and 3. It is said to be the first odd prime, because the previous prime number is 2, which is even.

## Proofs

• It is divisible by 1: 3/1=3
• It is not divisible by 2: 3/2=1.5
• It is divisible by 3: 3/3=1
• Therefore it has 2 factors, not 3, because 3 divided by 2 does not result in an integer value.

## Relationship with other odd numbers

### The numbers before

• 2 is the first prime number. It is the only even prime number.
• 1, the number before 2, is not a prime number.

### The numbers after

• The next odd number, 5, is a prime number.
• There are no odd numbers between 3 and 5. As a result, they are twin primes.
• 7, the odd number following 5, is a prime number.
• 3 and 7 are four numbers apart, therefore, they are cousin primes.
• 9, the odd number following 7, is not a prime number. It is a square number, and the first odd composite number.

## Usage

### Science

• Lithium's atomic number and number of electrons are 3.
• Group three elements also have the valence of +3. Similarly, group five elements have the valence of -3.
• Tritium / hydrogen-3, has a nucleon number of 3.

### Sports

• In basketball, a shot behind the three-point arc is worth three points, unless in the 3x3 variant.

### Video Games

• In The Legend of Zelda series, there is a sacred relic called Triforce, which consists of three separate golden triangles.

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