|320 BC||Eratosthenes of Cyrene invents the first prime sieve.|
|300 BC||Euclid proves that there are infinitely many prime numbers by contradiction.|
Euclid proves the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, which states that all natural numbers can be expressed as a product of one or more prime numbers.
|1472 AD||Goldbach conjectures that all every even integer greater than 2 can be expressed as the sum of two prime numbers.|
|1555 AD||J. Scheybl discovers the prime 216217-1.|
|1644 AD||Marin Mersenne discovers the Mersenne primes 8,191 and 131,071.|
|1732 AD||Leonhard Euler shows that the fifth Fermat number is not prime, thus disproving Fermat's conjecture that all Fermat numbers are prime.|
|1750 AD||Leonhard Euler discovers the 31st Mersenne prime.|
|1776 AD||Antonio Felkel records the prime factorisation of all counting numbers up to 408 000.|
|1852 AD||Pafnuty Chebyshev proves Bertrand's postulate, which states that, for n > 1, there is always a prime between n and 2n.|
|1856 AD||A.L. Crelle determines the first 6 000 000 primes.|
|1861 AD||Zacharias Dase compiles a list of the first 9 000 000 primes.|
|1896 AD||Jacques Hadamard and Charles Jean de la Vallée-Poussin prove the Prime Number Theorem.|
|1996 AD||George Woltman starts the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search (GIMPS) by creating and distributing software that can be used to test Mersenne numbers for primality to find larger prime numbers.|
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